Wednesday, April 23, 2014

Low water reveals history


HISTORY ENTHUSIASTS and State Park docents explore the riverbed of the South Fork of the American River and a diversion dam that has been exposed by low water levels at Folsom Lake. The dam, located just downstream from the Salmon Falls Bridge, was built in 1868, and diverted water into two channels that flowed along each side of the river.

From page A1 | November 20, 2013 | 2 Comments

Like some long-deserted city, the shoreline of the American River near Salmon Falls is littered here and there with the scattered remains of an old diversion dam and ditches.

And though neglected, the dam hasn’t been forgotten. For visiting it recently were docents from the Folsom Powerhouse along with Jenifer Padgett, an associate state archaeologist with the state Department of Parks and Recreation.

Picking their way through the rocks and cockleburs, they walked up the South Fork of the American River to what was left of the old Natoma Water and Mining Co. Diversion Dam.

Constructed at Rocky Bar, about two miles above the town of Salmon Falls, it was the third dam on the site, although little remains now except a small section of its base near the shoreline.

Built in 1868, the dam is described as having been 298 feet long, 16 feet high and 25 feet thick at the base and heavily reinforced with one inch steel rods. On top were four layers of planking to create a slide for logs, stones and other debris to be carried over it.

Flanking the dam on both sides were ditches that ran parallel to the river and were fed by the dam. One ditch was called Natoma and the other Negro Hill.

Constructed with the help of Chinese laborers, they called the dam “Fang Suy.” Chinese workers also helped construct other projects in the area, including the canals along Folsom Lake that usually aren’t visible except when the water level is low.

In 1959, after 91 years of holding back the river, the dam was blown up by U.S. Army engineers because it was considered a hazard to boats during the summer months. But up until that time, it did its job of providing water for drinking, irrigation, mining and logging on the American River.

Harnessing the river

Quizzed as to why they were visiting the old dam, the docents said doing so was part of the big picture of understanding the history of the Folsom Powerhouse and those primarily responsible for building it — the Livermores.

That history actually began thousands of years ago with the name Salmon Falls derived from a place on the river where Native Americans came to catch salmon. Their use of the area is still preserved in a large boulder near shore where a small bowl that once served as a mortar has been hollowed out of the rock.

Once gold was discovered around 1849, people flocked to the area.

According to the writer Paolo Sioli, very rich gold deposits were found by Mormons in the vicinity of what was called Negro Hill. Meanwhile groups of Spaniards and Negroes also staked out claims.

With various businesses springing up and different groups flocking to the area, by the end of 1853, the town atop Negro Hill numbered at least one thousand people and had become a bustling community of stores, boarding houses, saloons and dance halls.

That same year, a ditch was built from Salmon Falls to Negro Hill, a distance of eight miles, with water selling at $1 per inch. In 1855, another ditch was built near Salmon Falls which ran in a circuit of three miles, bringing plenty of new business to the town. However, according to Sioli, after the mines fell into the hands of the Chinese, business rapidly declined and most of the white men in town turned to farming.

It was during this time that a businessman named A.P. Catlin and others organized several mining and water companies as loose associations to divert water from the South Fork of the American River. Their main canal, built in 1851, took its water from the same area where the diversion dam was later built. Twenty miles in length, the canal also had side branches for irrigation. In 1853, the group incorporated the Natoma Water and Mining Co. (NWMC) and constructed a 16-mile canal-ditch system to Prairie City for the purpose of selling water.

In 1854, Catlin and other principals of NWMC formed a second company, the American River Water and Mining Co.. It was organized to divert water from the North Fork of the American River.

One of the officers of NWMC included Horatio Gates Livermore. A transplant from Maine, he had come to California to make his fortune. Sometime between 1862 and 1864, Livermore and his sons obtained controlling interest in NWMC and began plans to build an industrial center at Folsom using hydro mechanical power. At the same time they put in additional ditches and canals and sold water.

Later, NWMC planted a 2,000-acre vineyard, which was said to be the largest vineyard in the world at the time. They also owned one of the largest orchards in California.

In 1867 construction began on the first Folsom Dam by the Livermores at Stony Bar Gorge. Labor was to be supplied by convicts in exchange for the Livermores giving 350 acres to the state to build Folsom prison. But with construction delayed until the prison was built, the dam was not completed until 1891.

A year later, the Natoma Water and Mining Co. Diversion Dam was built.

In 1881, the stockholders of NWMC formed the Folsom Water Power Co. By that time the sons of Horatio Livermore understood that rather than use water for mechanical power, the water of the American River could be used to turn generators and to supply electricity to Sacramento.

In 1892, one of Horatio’s sons incorporated the Sacramento Electric Power and Light Co. and made plans to build a powerhouse as well as construct a long-distance power line along with a distribution station in Sacramento. While many scoffed at the project, the Livermores proceeded anyway and even persuaded the General Electric Co. to invest in the project.

By 1895, the powerhouse began delivery of electric power to Sacramento. In honor of the event, a detachment of soldiers fired a 100-gun salute.

In 1952, the Folsom Powerhouse, while still operational, was shut down as much bigger dams and powerhouses took its place. It was later designated both a California and National Historical Landmark. Folsom Powerhouse went on to become one of the oldest hydroelectric facilities in the world. Its use of falling water to generate electricity that could be transmitted elsewhere as power becoming the prototype of today’s electrical transmission systems.

Reflections on the past

Examining the remnants of the dam and ditches on Monday, some of the docents put their tour in the context of what they already knew about the Livermores and the Folsom Powerhouse.

“Water was one thing he (Horatio Livermore) connected with big time and he knew its power to do work,” said Orangevale docent Paul Money. “That’s why a lot of this is important to us. It’s he who started the powerhouse idea through his sons. He had plans for a mechanical industrial plant but died before he could bring it to fruition. But his two sons took over the company. They bought the Folsom Water Mining Co., which later became the Folsom Water Power Co. That’s the company that built the diversion dam, the canal and the hydroelectric powerhouse. The sons knew electricity was the future. They’re the ones who converted over their father’s master plan.”

The public is invited to visit the site of the old dam which is a short distance below the Salmon Falls Bridge. However Padgett reminded people to leave any artifacts associated with the site undisturbed so others can share in the history of the Folsom Powerhouse.

Contact Dawn Hodson at 530-344-5071 or Follow @DHodsonMtDemo on Twitter.


Discussion | 2 comments

  • Tom BoydNovember 20, 2013 - 9:38 am

    Great story. Thanks for providing the history of the area. And thanks for letting me tag along on the trip.

    Reply | Report abusive comment
  • hangtownNovember 20, 2013 - 12:22 pm

    Except it wasn't known as negro hill but N----r hill

    Reply | Report abusive comment


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